How Do I take CBD?

CBD Oils:

Taken as drops under the tongue, hold for a few seconds then swallow. CBD oil can also be applied topically to the skin and massaged in.

CBD Pastes:

A small piece, often a ‘grain of rice’ sized amount, place under the tongue, hold for a few seconds then swallow. CBD paste can also be added to empty capsules, to avoid the concentrated plant taste.  CBD paste also works as an great ingredient in home baking, or to make your own balm.

CBD Edibles:

A tasty way to consume.

CBD Concentrates:

To be used in aromatherapy devices and other similar methods.

Our bodies have two main Cannabinoid receptors; CB1 and CB2, as indicated below, which work with our brains. The word ‘Endo’ means ‘within’ , hence the Cannabinoid system within our bodies.


CB1 receptors are abundant in our brains. CB2 are more abundant outside the nervous system, in particular our immune systems.


Hemp and its extracts (CBD) are rich in vitamins B1, B2, B6, D, E, Omega 3 & 6, Antioxidants and Amino Acids. In fact all Amino Acids essential for an optimum healthy lifestyle are found in the hemp plant, plus over 220 other compounds.


By following a healthy lifestyle, including increased consupmtion of hemp products it may be possible to ‘kick start’ our ECS systems to maintain and support our overall well-being, and quality of life.

Sativa Vs Indica

Sativa Or Indica?

The genus Cannabis (family Cannabaceaea), first appeared in Central asia somewhere around 34 million years ago. Evidence points to a coevolutionary symbiotic relationship between mankind and cannabis, with human selective breeding being responsible for the diverse range of plant chemovars that we have today.


Cannabis is considered to be a one-species genus by most, Cannabis sativa l. In 1785 on an expedition to India, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck published a description of a second variety that he encountered and named ‘Cannabis indica’, to describe the short, squat, conifer shaped cannabis plants with wide leaves.


In 1974, Cannabis was recognised by Richard Evans Schultes as 4 distinct species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, Cannabis spontanea and Cannabis ruderalis. In 2004, after analysing 157 cannabis samples from 26 different countries, Karl Hillig, concluded that there are 2 distinct gene pools of Cannabis, sativa and indica, containing 7 biotypes.


Despite the wide variety of Cannabis indica chemovars available, the gene pool is narrower than that of Cannabis sativa, suggesting a founder effect may have bottlenecked the genetic base of Cannabis indica. Until recently it had been assumed that the segregation was caused by a either geographical event such as an ice-age
glacation, or the advent of human selection pressure. After creating the worlds first cannabis chromosome map, researchers at the University of Toronto found it was a viral attack on the cannabis genome millions of years ago that caused a gene duplication which split ancient Cannabis to split into 2 distinct types, sativa and


While these 7 biotypes may not sound familiar compared with how ‘Sativa’ and ‘Indica’ are used in the current vernacular, we feel its important to inform of the correct taxonomical definitions to enable further research.

Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa

also known as: hemp, industrial hemp, European hemp
appearance: usually tall, long narrow leaflets
example of varities: Finola, Felina, Fedora, Santhica, Carmagnola
cannabinoid content: 1-12% Cannabinoid content CBD dominant, low THC.
Geographical origin: Eastern European
other notes: Grown for industrial fibre and food for Millennia in Europe.
A wide range of terpene profiles are expressed, with beta-caryophyllene and a-humulene often being dominant.
Contains the flavonoid luteolin C‐glycuronide, rarely found in Cannabis indica.
Very low amounts of myrcene, which contributes to the ‘couch lock’ effect of many Cannabis indica varieties.

Cannabis sativa ssp. spontanea

also known as: wild hemp, ditch weed
cannabinoid content: 1-8% CBD dominant, low THC
Geographical origin: Eastern Europe
other notes: Shares genetic characteristics with Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa and Cannabis ruderalis.
Possibly the primeval biotype to cultivated Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa.

Cannabis ruderalis

also known as: wild hemp, ditch weed
cannabinoid content: 1-4% CBD dominant, low THC
Geographical origin: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan.
other notes: Considered to be a primeval biotype unmodified by domestication.
Contains has an auto-flowering gene that doesn’t require a photoperiod to complete its life cycle.
Cannabis ruderalis is not cultivated, although feral plants are sometimes harvested for fibre.
Short growing cycle, around 5-7 weeks from seed.

Cannabis indica ssp. indica

also known as: Cannabis, Indian hemp, ‘Sativa’ cannabis strains.
appearance: tall, with long narrow leaflets
example of varieties: Haze, Durban, Malawi, Colombian Gold, Dr Grinspoon
cannabinoid content: up to 25% THC dominant, low CBD. Often a ratio of 100:1 THC:CBD
Geographical origin: Southern India.
Dominant terpenes: Powerful psychoactive effect, often described as ‘uplifting’ Labelled as ‘Sativa strains’ in the recreational and nutritional supplement market.
other notes: First introduced to the Western hemisphere in 1549 when East African slaves brought seeds to Brazil onboard Portugese ships.
The abolition of slavery in Jamaica in 1834 led to the introduction of cannabis on the island when English landowners imported servants from India, who brought cannabis seeds with them.
Has a long growing cycle, up to 22 weeks from seed.

Cannabis indica ssp. afghanica

also known as: Cannabis, Indian hemp, ‘Indica’ cannabis strains.
appearance: usually short, with short broad leaflets
Dominant terpenes: Afghan, Hindu Kush, Mazar-I-Sharif, L.A Confidential
cannabinoid content: Myrcene, Linalool, Beta-caryophyllene, Limoneneup to 25% THC dominant, CBD dominant and 50:50 THC:CBD chemovars can be found
Geographical origin: Afghanistan, Western Turkmenistan
other notes: Powerful psychoactive effect, often described as ‘sedating’ Labelled as ‘Indica strains’ in the recreational and nutritional supplement market.
First introduced to the USA in the 1970’s by way of smuggled seeds.
This biotype was cross bred in California with Cannabis indica ssp. indica (from Mexico and Colombia) to produce ‘Skunk No.1’, which is currently grown under license for medicinal use by GW pharmaceuticals in the UK.

Cannabis indica ssp. kafiristanica

also known as: feral cannabis
appearance: tall, with long narrow leaflets
cannabinoid content: 1-8% THC dominant, CBD dominant and various THC:CBD ratio chemovars can be found. Higher ratios of THCV and CBDV compared to other biotypes.
Geographical origin: Northern India, Nepal
other notes: Ruderal plants that may represent the ancestral source of cultivated Cannabis indica ssp. indica.

Cannabis indica ssp. chinensis

also known as: hemp, Asian hemp, Chinese hemp
cannabinoid content: 1-9% Often THC dominant, low CBD Contains higher ratio of CBGM compare to other biotypes.
Geographical origin: China
other notes: Grown in China for millennia for fibre and food. Samples of hemp fibers dating back to 4000BC have been found, around the same age as similar European samples.
Cannabinoid profiles are more closely related to C. indica ssp, indica, afghanica and kafiristanica, than that of Cannabis sativa ssp sativa (European hemp)
Asian and European hemp were first hybridised at the US Department of Agriculture in 1914.


(above cannabinoid values are for guide purposes only)

Rare cannabis specimens have been found in the wild that express 100% of their cannabinoids as CBG, and others that produce no cannabinoids at all.


The degree of interbreeding and hybridisation that has taken place in recent years makes it impossible to guess the biochemical composition of a plant based on its height, branching or leaf shape. While the use of ‘Sativa’, to mean ‘energising, uplifting varieties’, and ‘Indica’, to mean ‘calming, sedating varieties’, in the current vernacular is well understood, the terms have no taxonomical accuracy or validity. The only way to asses what is in a particular variety is with accurate cannabinoid and terpene analysis.


From the uplifting floral and citrus scents in a florists shop, to the sedating effect of the lavender on your pillow at night, to the mind clearing effect from walking amongst pine trees, these effects are all caused by terpenes.


Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds produced by a wide variety of plants. There are at least 20,000 terpenes found in nature. Cannabis produces more than 200 of these which act synergistically with the cannabinoids to produce what is known as the ‘entourage effect’, which fits with the holistic concept that; ‘the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.’ The combination and different ratios of individual terpenes are what gives a cannabis variety its unique smell.


The genetics, combined with growing environment, determine the levels and combination of terpenes produced by the plant. The same plant variety grown in 2 different soils, or climatic conditions, can produce different ratios of the terpenes that are available within its genotype. Soil quality, temperature, and UV exposure play a large role in influencing a plants terpene production.


After harvesting, a certain amount of terpenes will oxidise and evaporate in the drying process. Care and attention has to be taken during the drying process, which can’t be rushed, to avoid the volatile compounds being overly degraded.


We’ve put together a chart to help you associate some of the familiar tastes and smells you can come across in different cannabis extracts.


Caryophyllene Oxide


Sweet, Earthy
Sweet, Pungent Spicy
Woody, Spicy, Clove
Floral, Fruity
Floral, Fruity
Woody Odor
Fresh, Woody, Sweet, Pine


Floral, Peppery
Sweet, Pungent
Woody, Spicy, Clove
Floral, Fruity
Floral, Fruity
Floral, Green


Camphor, Ginger
Black Pepper, Cloves
(Oxidised Form Of Beta-Caryophyllene)
Cumin, Thyme
Hops, Sage, Ginger
Mint, Eucalyptus, Lemongrass
Rose Oil, Lemongrass
Cypress Pine, Conifers
Conifers, Rosemary, Sage
Wild Thyme, Hops, Cardamom
Citrus Fruits
Ginger, Jasmine, Lemon Grass, Lavender
Ginger, Jasmine, Lemon Grass, Lavender
All Spice, Basil
Eucalyptus, Juniper, Citrus
Pine, Bitter Orange Tree
Tea Tree Oil, Pinegum, Mandarin

The goal behind independent third party lab testing is to have a neutral, unbiased source examine the content and quality of a company’s cannabis products. This is incredibly important in today’s market, as the non-regulated state of cannabis.


Please contact us for lab reports